Tuesday, April 3, 2012

U.S. Maps of Alternative Fueling Stations

This page provides options for viewing alternative fueling stations throughout the United States. The stations displayed have been independently verified by the Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (AFDC).


U.S. Maps by Fuel Type


The following links go to station location pages within the Fuels section of this website. The maps on these pages display concentrations of fueling stations in each state and allows you to get station location details for each state.

Biodiesel:

Biodiesel is a domestically produced, renewable fuel that can be manufactured from new and used vegetable oils, animal fats, and recycled restaurant grease. Biodiesel's physical properties are similar to those of petroleum diesel, but it is a cleaner-burning alternative. Using biodiesel in place of petroleum diesel reduces emissions.

There is much to consider when building biodiesel fueling infrastructure. Use these resources as spring boards to getting started. Minimal B20 and B100 equipment listed by Underwriters Laboratories (UL) is available for dispensing equipment. Above-ground manufacturers (dispensers and hanging hardware) are expected to offer more B20 listed equipment in 2012. Prior to the widespread availability of UL-listed equipment, biodiesel stations were using existing equipment with a waiver from the local authority having jurisdiction. It is preferable to install UL-listed equipment once available. This ensures a station is meeting all laws, codes, and regulations.

Biodiesel Fueling Station Locations


Electricity 


Electricity used to power vehicles is generally provided by the electricity grid and stored in the vehicle's batteries. Fuel cells are being explored as a way to use electricity generated on board the vehicle to power electric motors. Unlike batteries, fuel cells convert chemical energy from hydrogen into electricity.


Vehicles that run on electricity have no tailpipe emissions. Emissions that can be attributed to electric vehicles are generated in the electricity production process at the power plant.


Home recharging of electric vehicles (EVs) is as simple as plugging them into an electric outlet. Electricity fueling costs for electric vehicles are reasonable compared to gasoline, especially if consumers take advantage of off-peak rates. However, electricity costs vary across the U.S. depending on location, type of generation, time of use, and access point (home, business, etc). For average U.S. electricity prices, see the Energy Information Administration's Residential Electricity Prices: A Consumer's Guide. Many states, particularly California, have public access electric outlets at libraries, shopping centers, hospitals, and businesses.


Electric Charging Station Locations


Ethanol Fuel 

Ethanol is also available as E85—a gasoline-ethanol blend containing 51% to 83% ethanol, depending on geography and season. This alternative fuel can be used in flexible fuel vehicles—a vehicle type that has an internal combustion engine and runs on either E85 or gasoline.Ethanol is a renewable fuel made from various plant materials collectively known as "biomass." More than 95% of U.S. gasoline contains ethanol in a low-level blend to oxygenate the fuel and reduce air pollution.

There are several steps involved in making ethanol available as a vehicle fuel:
Biomass feedstocks are grown, collected and transported to an ethanol production facility
Feedstocks are made into ethanol at a production facility and transported to a blender/fuel supplier
Ethanol is mixed with gasoline by the blender/fuel supplier and distributed to fueling stations.

Ethanol as a vehicle fuel is not a new concept. Henry Ford and other early automakers suspected it would be the world's primary fuel before gasoline became so readily available. Today, researchers agree ethanol could substantially offset our nation's petroleum use. In fact, studies have estimated that ethanol and other biofuels could replace 30% or more of U.S. gasoline demand by 2030.

The use of ethanol is required by the federal Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS).

E85 Fueling Station Locations

Hydrogen as an Alternative Fuel

The interest in hydrogen as an alternative transportation fuel stems from its clean-burning qualities, its potential for domestic production, and the fuel cell vehicle's potential for high efficiency (two to three times more efficient than gasoline vehicles). Hydrogen is considered an alternative fuel under the Energy Policy Act of 1992.

The energy in 2.2 lb (1 kg) of hydrogen gas is about the same as the energy in 1 gallon of gasoline. A light-duty fuel cell vehicle must store 11-29 lb (5-13 kg) of hydrogen to enable an adequate driving range of 300 miles or more. Because hydrogen has a low volumetric energy density (a small amount of energy by volume compared with fuels such as gasoline), storing this much hydrogen on a vehicle using currently available technology would require a very large tank—larger than the trunk of a typical car. Advanced technologies are needed to reduce the required storage space and weight.

Storage technologies under development include high-pressure tanks with gaseous hydrogen compressed at up to 10,000 pounds per square inch, cryogenic liquid hydrogen cooled to -423°F (-253°C) in insulated tanks, and chemical bonding of hydrogen with another material (such as metal hydrides). See the fact sheet Hydrogen Storage



Hydrogen Fueling Station Locations


Natural gas vehicle?

Dedicated natural gas vehicles (NGVs) are designed to run only on natural gas; bi-fuel NGVs have two separate fueling systems that enable the vehicle to use either natural gas or a conventional fuel (gasoline or diesel). In general, dedicated NGVs demonstrate better performance and have lower emissions than bi-fuel vehicles because their engines are optimized to run on natural gas. In addition, the vehicle does not have to carry two types of fuel, thereby increasing cargo capacity and reducing weight.

Natural gas vehicles are fueled with compressed natural gas (CNG) or liquefied natural gas (LNG). These fuels are considered alternative fuels under theEnergy Policy Act of 1992 and qualify for alternative fuel vehicle tax credits. As a new twist, tests are being conducted using natural gas vehicles fueled with HCNG, a blend of CNG and hydrogen.

Compared with vehicles fueled with conventional diesel and gasoline, NGVs can produce significantly lower amounts of harmful emissions. In addition, some natural gas vehicle owners report service lives two to three years longer than gasoline or diesel vehicles and extended time between required maintenance.

The driving range of NGVs generally is less than that of comparable gasoline- and diesel-fueled vehicles because of the lower energy content of natural gas. Extra storage tanks can increase range, but the additional weight may displace payload capacity. NGV horsepower, acceleration, and cruise speed are comparable with those of an equivalent conventionally fueled vehicle.

Other benefits of NGVs include increasing U.S. energy security and paving the way for fuel cell vehicles.




Propane vehicle?

Propane, also known as liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), has been used in vehicles since the 1920s. It is considered an alternative fuel under the Energy Policy Act of 1992 and qualifies for alternative fuel vehicle tax incentives.

Today, most propane vehicles are conversions from gasoline vehicles. Dedicated propane vehicles are designed to run only on propane; bi-fuel propane vehicles have two separate fueling systems that enable the vehicle to use either propane or gasoline.

Propane vehicle power, acceleration, and cruising speed are similar to those of gasoline-powered vehicles. The driving range for bi-fuel vehicles is comparable to that of gasoline vehicles. The range of dedicated gas-injection propane vehicles is generally less than gasoline vehicles because of the 25% lower energy content of propane and lower efficiency of gas-injection propane fuel systems. Extra storage tanks can increase range, but the additional weight displaces payload capacity. Liquid Propane Injection engines, introduced in 2006, promise to deliver fuel economy more comparable to gasoline systems.

Lower maintenance costs are a prime reason behind propane's popularity for use in delivery trucks, taxis, and buses. Propane's high octane rating (104 to 112 compared with 87 to 92 for gasoline) and low carbon and oil contamination characteristics have resulted in documented engine life of up to two times that of gasoline engines. Because the fuel mixture (propane and air) is completely gaseous, cold start problems associated with liquid fuel are eliminated.

Compared with vehicles fueled with conventional diesel and gasoline, propane vehicles can produce significantly lower amounts of harmful greenhouse gas emissions. Another benefit of propane vehicles is increasing U.S. energy security.


Propane Fueling Station Locations




No comments:

Post a Comment